Guide to Physical Environment: Encouraging Collaboration and Learning

Version 1. January 25, 2022

The physical environment encompasses the classrooms, laboratories, offices, hallways, and social spaces used by your department. These spaces may be controlled by your department or shared with others. The configuration and use of available space can limit or facilitate your department’s ability to realize its goals. This section provides guidance for departments working to optimize existing spaces and/or design new spaces within financial and institutional constraints. Because space needs and constraints are diverse and highly dependent on local context, this section does not recommend particular designs for instructional or other spaces. Rather, it provides recommendations on how to ensure that designs are driven by departmental goals for pedagogy, community, research, and other endeavors (e.g., support for students and their organizations) while making allowances, whenever possible, for future changes in uses and preferences. This section can be used to facilitate departmental discussions on how space is being used and how existing spaces could be changed to better meet department goals. For a table connecting pedagogies with physical spaces, see the resource on Connecting Desired Student Behaviors and Optimal Spaces. See the section on Instructional Laboratories and Experimental Skills for specific guidance on how to design new or remodeled laboratory spaces that are collaborative, adaptable, and accessible. See the section on Implementing Research-Based Instructional Practices for guidance on pedagogical practices. See the section on How to Create and Sustain Effective Change for guidance on making large-scale changes in your department or program.


Aligning the physical environment with your department’s goals can be key to achieving those goals. A department and its

can maximize student learning and reduce barriers in classrooms and laboratories by creating a physical environment that facilitates diverse approaches to collaboration and learning. Providing spaces for non-instructional activities (e.g., meeting areas for student organizations, study areas, and research and project spaces) enhances the student experience, supporting recruiting and retention. Evaluating your department’s physical environment allows you to assess how well spaces are meeting your needs, how equitably space is allocated, the extent to which all groups (e.g., faculty, students, and staff) benefit from departmental spaces, and how well your spaces exhibit the culture, community, and achievements of your department.

Effective Practices

  1. Inventory department spaces and their use at regular intervals, such as every five years

  2. Determine how current and future space can be used or modified to meet department needs within financial and institutional constraints

  3. Design new spaces or renovate existing ones

The Cycle of Reflection and Action

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This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. 1738311, 1747563, and 1821372. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

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